PHTHALATES: is a salt or ester of phthalic acid, is used mainly as plasticizers ( substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity).

The vast majority of people are exposed to some levels of phthalates, and most of Americans tested by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention have metabolites of multiple phthalates in the urine. Phthalate  exposure may be through direct use or by indirect means through leaching and general environmental contamination.

Phthalates are found to mimic the female hormone estrogen and it disrupts the development in baby boys, the first evidence linking certain chemicals in everyday plastics to effect men and boys. The chemical implicated is phthalate which makes plastics more pliable in many toys, baby feeding bottles, and paints. The studies suggested that these chemicals influence on the male hormone testosterone on healthy development of males. The research high lights the need for tougher controls on gender bending chemicals, says Gwynne Lyons World Wildlife Fund UK,  this needs to be stopped other wise wildlife and human males will be the losers.

The incriminating findings came from a study of 85 baby boys born to women exposed to everyday levels of phthalates during pregnancy. As an index of females , she measured the anogenital distance between the anus and the base of the penis. Earlier studies have shown that the anogenital distance is twice for girls than boys.


In animals anogenital is reduced by phthalates which mimics estrogen, it keeps the testosterone from doing it’s normal job. In higher doses animals develop more serious abnormalities, such as under formed  testicles and misplaced openings to the urethra on the penis, a group of symptoms called phthalate syndrome.


In 2008 researchers of the Calgary University sampled populations of minnows in the Old Man River and the Bow River which flows downtown and is where they get their drinking water their random catch was over whelming  female the males had all but vanished.

The Alberta researchers found that the leading suspect is a broad range of potent chemical that act or mimic endocrine hormones, EDC’s the chemicals that carry signals around the body of living creatures to trigger or turn off physiological activity. These chemicals aren’t just in hot spots, down stream from cities and feed lots. Some 23,000 toxic compounds are estimated to be present in the Canadian living and working environment with 1,000 new ones added every year. Another 7,000 pesticide for mutations are registered with federal authorities at least 60 of those are banned in most other industrialized nations.

In Canada researchers found a clear shift towards fewer males being born appeared in the 70’s, the shift in ratios had amounted to a decline of 2.2 males for every 1,000 live births.    THE TYEE.CA